Compared to other antioxidants, astaxanthin works more effectively. So its antioxidative effectiveness is much stronger than, for example, vitamin E, coenzyme Q10 or vitamin C. This is due to the special molecular structure.
The long-chain molecule has polar end groups with which it can be taken up by cells. The oxygen groups give it its antioxidant effect. In the microalgae, astaxanthin is present, among other things, in esterified form and is thus protected against early oxidation. This is why astaxanthin should always be taken in conjunction with fats, as this increases the bioavailability. However, astaxanthin can also bind to proteins, as can be seen on the shells of crustaceans. Astaxanthin protects the skin from UV damage, supports eyesight and aids in muscle regeneration after intensive strength training. Astaxanthin scores even more than other antioxidants. Some antioxidant substances have a pro-oxidative effect. This means that after neutralizing free radicals, they themselves exist as a reactive molecule and lead to damage. Astaxanthin, on the other hand, is not pro-oxidative. Since it is a lipophilic molecule, i.e. it is fat-soluble, it can be stored in our skin cells. Because of its unique structure, it acts on both sides of the cell membrane, i.e. outside and inside the cell. The effective range of vitamin C is limited to the extracellular space due to its hydrophilic properties, vitamin E can only act inside the cell.